How To Treat Burns & Minimize Further Damages For The Patients.

how to treat burns

Introduction:

Traumatic burns are the effects of fire, scalds, chemicals, electricity, thermal, and radiology. Consequently, it damages the cells and tissues under the skin of an organic body. Indeed it created intolerable pain and sufferings. Moreover, it can lead to permanent physical disability or even death. Medical science decides how to treat burns based on the severity of the injury. Doctors usually suggest medication and homecare treat minor burns. At the same time, significant burns require longer treatments under the observation of specialists. However, the primary purpose in both cases is to minimize further damages. We need to hospitalize the injured person as soon as possible. Therefore, it is necessary to treat burns and receive medical treatment properly. 

What are burns:

The burn is the damage caused to the body’s organic tissue when exposed to extreme heat. According to severity, how to treat burns differ from person to person. And how to treat burns is based on the burn type.

Causes of burns:

 The most common burn, thermal burn, happens due to direct fire, heated objects, or scalding liquids. Again electric currents and radiations such as that from x-rays and ct-scans can cause burns. Also, acids, explosive chemicals, paint thinner, and gasoline can result in burns. Too much exposure to ultraviolet rays of sunlight can cause sunburn. Apart from these, children and sometimes adults are the victims of assault by burning. The reason for the burn help to understand how to treat that burn.

Types of burn:

Burns are classified into different types based on how deep the injury and how much it has penetrated the patient’s skin. Besides, the percentage of area is also necessary. Usually, dermatologists determine the size of the burned area by the ‘rule of nines.’ It helps as the guideline of how to treat burns. Dermatologists divide burns into four types. These are:

1. First-degree burns

2. Second-degree burns

3. Third-degree burns &

4. Fourth-degree burns

Along with specialists, general people should know the basics of how to treat burns.

First-degree burns:

First degree burns affect only the epidermis or the outer skin. And it has another name, which is superficial burn. Compared to other burns, how to treat this burn is comparatively more straightforward and less painful. However, the burned area is red, dry, and without blisters. Sunburn is an example of first-degree burns. In addition to it, stove flame, curling iron, or hair straightener can cause it. Usually, it results in a change of skin color. Generally, it heals with time and does not leave behind and scars. 

In most cases, the soreness and pain exist for 3-4 days. One should learn how to treat burns of first-degree following specific immediate steps. But patients should visit a doctor if the burn causes more problems or the damaged area is more extensive. 

How to treat burns of first-degree:

We can treat most of the first-degree burns at home with necessary treatment. Though this burn is not that severe, it can result in a lot of pain and leave a scar if not treated accurately. There are several steps to know how to treat burns. 

To treat a burn of the first-degree dermatologist suggests the following treatments:

1. To cool the area: To treat the burn, it needs to be immersed in cold water or wrapped with a piece of cloth soaked in cold water. Besides, one can use wet compresses. And this process may continue for 10-15 minutes. But one shouldn’t apply ice

2. Medication: One should avoid using ointments, toothpaste, or other greasy elements to the burn. Because they can cause allergic reactions or infections. 

3. To dress the area: To treat first burns of first-degree dressing is not required. Patients who suffer extensive first-degree burns may need analgesics. 

It may need 15-20 days to heal properly. However, a patient should visit a doctor if a burned area is more extensive or other problems arise. 

Second-degree burns:

Second-degree burns, also known as partial-thickness burns, penetrate the outer skin and affect the second layer of skin (dermis). As a result, the area forms pain, redness, swelling, and blisters. Apart from this, if the burn is deep, it can leave a scar. Unlike first degree burns, second-degree burns are more painful. It may be the result of hot water, direct fire, chemicals, or electricity. It causes broken blisters or swollen. This results in wet pinkish skin. In general second-degree burns look wet and puffy. 

How to treat burns of second-degree:

Medical treatment is very important to treat burns of second degree that covers a larger area. Compared to first-degree burns, it is way more painful.

Dermatologists suggests these steps to treat a burn of second-degree:

1. Clothes removal: Tight clothes, jewelry, and belt must be removed quickly. Because it causes the burn to swell more. 

2. To clean: Firstly, the affected area needs to be washed with cold water until the pain subsides. Here burned skin may peel off with washing. Then the area needs to be dabbed with a soft dry cloth slowly. Like first-degree burns, patients cannot use it here too.

3. Ointment: The patient can use antibiotic ointments or creams to prevent infection. And using ointment will require bandaging. Besides, the patient can use petroleum-based ointment.

4. Dressing: In case the blisters are broken open, then bandaging is necessary. Patients will find it easier to use non-stick bandages. And if the bandage is stuck, then warm water will help to remove the bandage. Furthermore, the dressing needs to be clean and sterilized. And dressing should be changed twice a day. 

5. When to seek a doctor’s help: If swelling or reddening increases, you must see a doctor. Besides, patients should visit a doctor if the blister becomes bigger than two inches and the pain increases. 

To treat second-degree burns, patients should follow these steps carefully. Second-degree burns take 2-3 weeks to heal fully. Unlike first-degree burns, second-degree burns leave scars, but they might fade with time. 

Third-degree burns:

Compared to the previous two burns, third-degree burns are severe. It has another name, which is full-thickness burns. It enters through the inner dermis and then affects the deeper cells and tissues of the body. 

So it causes extreme damage. However, owing to nerve damage, the patient might not feel much pain. The color of third degree burns are black and the skin became charred. Yet, there is no bleeding. Because this burn damages the blood vessels and blood flow stop in that area. Exposure to flame or hot bodies for more extended period results in third-degree burns. It is imperative to know how to treat burns.

How to treat burns of third-degree:

To know how to treat burns of the third degree is extremely necessary. Otherwise, it can cause long term damage. Treatment of third-degree burns requires dermatologists’ direct help and takes a longer time. 

To treat burns of third-degree dermatologists advise the followings:

1. Safe movement: The injured must be moved to a safer place as soon as possible. And people should disable the source of injury.

2. To clean: Injured people need to wash the burnt area with water. And the injured people should remove the burnt skin.

3. Intravenous treatment: After being hospitalized, the patient will require IV treatment. Intravenous (IV) antibiotics will ensure the prevention of infection. in addition, IV fluids will fill up the loss of fluid due to skin burn. Apart from this, the extra fluid helps to keep the patient’s blood pressure regular.

4. Skin grafting: Very often third-degree burns need to graft skin. In short, healthy skin from another part of the body replaces the burnt skin. Also artificial skin is available. 

Third-degree burns are very deadly and immediate treatment is essential to save the patient.There is no limited timeline for complete healing for third-degree burns. Even after healing this burn leaves severe scars. 

Fourth-degree burns:

Deadly fourth-degree burns penetrate both outer and inner layers of skin and harm underlying deeper cells and tissues. In most cases, the damage includes muscles and bones. And this burn thoroughly destroys the blood vessels of that area. So there is no blood flow. Besides, it also destroys the nerve endings. As a result the patient can’t feel anything at all. The affected organ disables in some cases. Other than this, the treatment is also time consuming and costly at some extent. Major fire accidents cause this type of deadly burns. We should know how to treat burns.

How to treat burns of fourth-degree:

Without treatment the patient might die in this case. In contrast to other burns, it is the most dangerous. Also, they can cause severe consequences if not treated timely. The treatment will depend on the severity of the damages. 

Treatment of fourth-degree burn patients are:

  1. In the burn unit: Patients must be hospitalized as soon as possible in the burn unit. 
  2. First aid:The injured organ is to be raised above the position of the chest if possible. One should cover the injured organ with a light cloth. Again nobody should use ice or ointment. One can flush the injured area lightly with water for chemical burns.

3. The usual treatments of doctors:Doctors prescribe medicines and ointments for infections. And grafting may be required too. Doctors give intravenous(Iv) fluids to steady blood pressure and prevent dehydration. 

4. Cosmetic surgery: If deformed and tissue doesn’t regrow, cosmetic surgery is suggested. But this is very costly. 

5. Physical therapy: To regain feelings in the injured area. Patient may require further treatment for muscles and bones. 

Sometimes the patient suffers from sock as well. Though fourth-degree burns are extremely deadly but the bright side is that medical science has progressed a lot in burn treatment. Timely and proper treatment can reduce damages at a great extent.

Prevention of shock of burnt patient:

Patient loses a lot of fluid when the burn is major.As a result, the blood pressure drops drastically.And it leads the patient to shock.Unless the patient had a head, leg injury, some steps can be taken to prevent shock. The patient is to be laid flat. Then the injured organ is to be placed above heart level if possible. A person with facial burn should sit down. Again the patient’s pulse rate and breathing must be monitored. Shock can traumatize a patient more than anything. 

Nutrition demand of burn patients:

The energy and protein requirement of the patient will be very high. At least the patient will require up to 6000 kilocalories per day. If the patient suffers from anemia and malnutrition, then healing of burn will be inhibited. To treat burns, patients will require a large amount of nutrition. Along with food, the patient needs to drink lots of water and other juices and fluids. It will meet the fluid demand of patients too

Frequently asked questions on how to treat burns:

Question-1:How are the types of burns different from each other?

Answer:Burns are divided into four types usually. And the severity of burns are the principal basis of this division. If the burn is major, then he should be hospitalized soon.

Question-2:How long does a burn take to heal?

Answer:The time required to heal a burn depends on the amount of injury. However, minor injuries require less time compared to significant injuries. 

Question-3:How to remove a burn scar permanently?

Answer:Burn scars can be removed or faded using laser treatments, steroid injections or cosmetics surgery. 

Question-4:When should one see a dermatologist for minor burns?

Answer: One should consult a dermatologist if the burn covers a large area. If the burn is in major body parts like face, head, and neck, one should soon visit the doctor.

Question-5:What should I do immediately after a burn?

Answer: The burnt area needs to be washed with cold water as soon as possible. In case of significant burns, she should take the patient to hospital soon. 

Conclusion:

One must be cautious anywhere at any time and try to prevent burns as much as possible. Even after that if accidents occur, the patient must be treated immediately and properly The recent improvement in burn treatment has reduced death rate highly. But the disabled patients suffer a lot.Modern technology along with medical science is inventing ways of preventing permanent organ failure. Again to treat burns, modern treatment should be available in hospitals. Following the preventive rules of epidemiology, mortality rate of burn-injured patients can be decreased. Apart from these, there should be proper knowledge about how to treat burns to minimize further damages. 

 

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