Types of Programming Languages: Major Difference and Characteristics

types of programming languages

Experts apply several programming languages every year. But for a computer programmer, it is impossible to learn all of them or work with all of them. A  programmer generally works with some specific programming languages which are popular, easy to use, and user-friendly. This article is essential if you are a computer engineer or a newbie programmer. Here I will present the different types of programming languages.

This discussion may help you to understand various programming styles.

As programming languages are vast, programmers have to go through difficulties before choosing their desired programming languages. Expert programmers use very few of those programming languages in their careers. However, this article is going to guide you to know about the basic difference between coding languages.

Different types of programming languages

Language is a communication way. We need to know the language to communicate with persons. So, what is the way to communicate with the computer? In the same fashion, we need to know the programming language to communicate with computers.

At the very beginning, the syntax of programming languages was very hard. By the cycle of time, it has started becoming easy and user friendly. Now both complex and easy coding languages are used for many purposes.

In reality, programming languages are nothing but some set of instructions. Programmers write these commands in many ways. These ways are known as various types of programming languages.

There are predominately two types of programming languages.

  1. Low-level language.
  2. High-level language.

Low-Level Language of types of programming languages

Low-level programming languages are very close to machine code or binary code. Not to mention, the computer only understands binary code like 0 and 1.

Low-level languages are comparatively easy to understand. It is the first programming language.

But low-level languages are very tricky for humans. It is also hard to do coding using this language.

Low-level language has two types.

  • Machine language.
  • Assembly language.

Machine Language of types of programming languages

Machine language is called the first generation of programming language. As a matter of fact, it is the only language that the computer can understand. It only works with binary digits.

The main problem with machine language is, it is different for different operating systems. So, it is not easy to learn a machine language. 

Assembly Language

Assembly language has developed depending on the machine language. It is called the second generation of programming language. English words can set up instructions here instead of binary code.

A specific type of processor needs a particular kind of Assembly language. Today’s programmer generally uses it for hardware usage. The computer turns assembly language to machine language for the help of its compilation.

High-Level Language of types of programming languages

High-level programming languages are very close to human languages. They are very similar to the English language.

Coders generally write the instruction of the high-level programming language in English. Such as scanf, printf, println, input, and void.

As there are different kinds of high-level languages, each language has its own rule and grammar. This grammar is called the syntax of the programming language.

The prime difference between various programming languages is their syntax. The user-friendly syntax is popular among programmers.

There are firstly two types of programming languages at a high-level.

  • Procedural-oriented language.
  • Object-oriented language.

Procedural-oriented Language

The procedural programming language is usually known as the structured programming language. Programmers use these kinds of languages to build the structure of software.

Moreover, It works by calling the procedure step by step. These procedures are also known as functions, routines, or subroutines. The programmer can get any process as his need during the compilation. Additionally, there is much use of pointers, procedures, variables, array, conditional statements in the structured programming language.

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We can mention Fortran, Basic, Algol, Pascal, Cbobl, and C as the example of procedural-oriented language.

Object-oriented Language

Object-oriented language is the 4th generation programming language. It is easy and less complicated than procedural-oriented language. Furthermore, it is the most popular language among programmers of this age.

If we look at OOP’s features and advantages, we can quickly notice some benefits. It holds the best elements among the different types of programming languages.

This coding language treats data as a set of objects. OOP get commands by creating Class. The classes hols data members and code members. The objects implement the order using those data and code members.

The compact feature sum up the data and code members. It also has diversity and devise features.

C++, Java, Python, Javascript, PHP, and visual basic are famous examples of object-oriented programming languages.

Types of Some High-Level Programming Language


Java has an exciting history. Inventors first designed Java for television. The advanced technology of Java leads its developers to develop Java into a language for digital devices.

Java creators created Java as a simple, high-performance, and mobile programming language. By the cycle of time, Java has become popular in internet programming, mobile gaming design, and e-business solutions.

Java is an object-oriented language. The Java compiler turns the code into Java byte code instead of turning it into machine language. At the operation time, the Java virtual machine translates byte codes into machine code.

Programmers hugely use Java in the mobile operating system and building corporate websites.


C++ is one of the most handed-down programming languages. It is a flexible programming language. It utilizes memory efficiently, executes smoothly, and facilitate consistently.

If we search in C++’s history, we will find that it has developed from a language called Simula by Bjarne Stroustrup. Not to mention, Inventors primarily designed it for simulation. Nowadays, C++ is famous for its 3D gaming design.

C++ is the first best programming language. Of course, there are some reasons for it. Firstly, it is good for beginners. Secondly, It works very fast and low-level though you can do high-level programming using it. Finally, it provides more than descents functional style support.


C is a programming language under high-level language. Most of the beginner programmers learn C as their first programming language. Programmers mostly use it for general purposes. There are some basic data types in the C language. These are: integer(int), void, floating-point(float), and character (char).

A user can get many facilities when using the C coding language. C builds blocks for many other programming languages. It provides the help of the user. It can extend itself. This is one of the excellent qualities of C. All things considered, C is considered as one of the best languages.


Genuinely speaking, HTML/CSS may not know as a programming language. To clarify, it is nothing but a page shape and a style of facts. They are the front of a website.

HTML provides to publish documents with headings, tables, text, lists, and photos. Additionally, it supports to add hyperlinks in a button. Video and audio clips, spread shits also can be added to the web page.

On the other hand, If you want to describe your web page, you need the help of CSS. The presentation from CSS can fit with both big and small screens, even in printers. CSS is independent. But HTML is a XML based markup language.

However, you can do some labored work by HTML. You need to learn it properly first.


PHP is an open-source and script-based programming language. Automation writes lines in PHP. First PHP means Personal Home Page. But now PHP stands for Hypertext Processor.

PHP is one of the best web development coding language among the different types of programming languages.

You may become close with WordPress that is the most powerful blogging system on the web. PHP is strong enough to become the core of WordPress. It also holds the ability to maintain a rich social site like Facebook.

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PHP can create files on the server and active page content. It can also collect and encrypt data. Programmers can receive cookies. Then they modify the database with PHP.

Various platforms like Mac, Windows, Linux, Unix, X support PHP.

So, by learning PHP, you can get benefits in the long run. But before knowing it, you must have basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.


Python is the most straight forward OOD programming language. This language is a high-level programming language. This language is used for general-purpose. As a result, programmers can do various kinds of works, like web development, software development, scripting, and mathematics through Python.

Syntax of python is very simple. This syntax has relativity to English. That’s why day by day, Python is becoming the number one language for the programmers.

Different platforms like Mac, Windows, Linux, Pi, all are reactive to python. As it provides an interpreted system, the model of Python is rapid. Programmers get the facility to write programs with few lines in Python.

The latest version of Python is python 3. Coders can use Python in diverse ways like procedural way, object-oriented way, and practical way.


SQL means Structured Query Language. This language gives access to the users and manipulates the database. It also completes queries against a database. Data is being retrieved by data from a database.

There are mixed SQL features like insert records, update records, create a new record, and create a new database table.

Coders use SQL for managing data and stream processing of a database. It is a domain-specific language.


Though its name is JavaScript, it has no relation to Java. JavaScript is the most suitable language for web pages among the other types of programming languages.

Javascript is a perfect machine language that can provide field content proof. For this purpose, it is called the world’s most popular coding language. As it is effortless to learn, beginners are fond of JavaScript.

JavaScript can manage both client-side and server-side. The websites which are made by using JavaScript are very user friendly. HTML and CSS provide only a web page structure. Besides, JavaScript makes the web page a thrilling factor. It is the reason behind the popularity of JavaScript.

Frequently Asked Question of types of programming languages

  1.   How should I start programming?

Ans: At first, choose the right programming language for you by researching many types of programming language. If you feel interested in website design, you can choose JavaScript, Python, SQL, or PHP. On the other hand, if you find your zeal for developing the operating system, software, or mobile operating system, you can t go for Java or C++.

You can try some online courses. At the same time, you can read some programming books. These books may help you for basic knowledge. You have to emphasize building up your logic. So, your primary focus should be on learning computational thinking.

By the same token, you can try some interactive tutorials for the betterment.

  • Can I choose Python as a newbie programmer?

Ans: If you think of a language to start with minimum knowledge, we recommend Python. Most students starts with this easy language. Even if you have no previous experience you can start today.

Python has straight syntax with less tough. As Python is a user-friendly language, it is suitable for newbie.

  • How many languages should a programmer know?

Ans: It is an elusive idea that a professional programmer should know many languages. You have to learn 1 or 2 dynamic coding languages very well. It will be enough for a programmer.

Verdict of types of programming languages

The world is gradually becoming a technology ruled world. Machines and technologies will be the main focus of the future world. In that world, programming will be the only way to communicate with devices.

So, We can assume that programmers are waiting to be the next generation’s role model. The demands of programming are not less even now. Considering all these things, if you have determined your mind to learn to code, it is the right time to start it.

But before starting, you have to do proper research on several types of programming languages and find your passion. After the analysis, we will be ready to go for the next step. I hope this article will help you in searching for your goals.

Best wishes!



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