What is Android Architecture and its Details

android architecture

Android architecture deals with the components of software and hardware stack for running an Android app. All the elements set inside a mobile device are necessary for functioning. This architecture comprised of small operating units like Linux kernel, libraries, framework services, etc. Knowing about the architecture can help you analyze the design and software arrangement inside an Android. The processing speed, output, and efficiency depend upon the android architecture of a phone.

The architecture of Android:-

Same like planning for good design in a building, it is necessary to go through the step by step processing for the android architecture contains five building blocks inside an Android operating system:-

  1. Linux kernel
  2. Libraries
  3. Application framework
  4. Applications
  5. Android Runtime

1.Linux kernel:-

Kernel version with Linux system of operation is known as Linux kernel. It runs by providing an abstraction layer between the hardware of the device and the stack. All the primary access, like power & memory management, and resource access, can operate in an Android-only because of the Linux Kernel. The function of the kernel is to function for the hardware. The display of the phone, Wi-Fi, and camera comes under the functioning of the Linux kernel. It can manage and run the networking hardware as well as the drivers of an Android phone. For example:- Audio, memory, and blue tooth drivers.

It has three essential parts:-

  • Device drivers:- it consists of all the drivers for accessing the hardware stack. For example, it consists of different drivers for the camera. All the drivers that can turn off and on the camera work only with the help of this driver.
  • Memory management:- This unit if a kernel version manages to create folders and store the data of each hardware Stack operated by the users. For example:- For accessing a camera it creates a folder named DCIM inside the file manager and manages to store all the photos in it. Memory management units also add a small encoded copy of all the processing units inside the android folder.
  • Process management:- The entire role of controlling each of the functions inside a Linux kernel takes place with the help of process management. Its speeds of this processing depend upon the type of processor used in Android while setting up an Android architecture at the time of manufacturing. 

2. Libraries:-

Libraries are the group’s logical instructions that perform by the action of the Linux kernel. It operates C/C++ code and Java-based libraries. The Coding language plays an essential role in the making of Android Libraries. The whole setup uses various coding languages like SSL, SQLite, OpenGL, etc. for making a perfect platform Libraries for Android architecture.

The output of Android libraries can give the following types of result in an Android:-

  • Media Library:– It includes the session for controlling the media for the UI. It can be possible with the help of a client or server-based design that works for other audio apps. It must have the architecture of perfect redirection of video to its players. All the making of hardware control units and corporate media app must be present in a media library manager.
  • Surface manager:- The screen compositor plays the role of managing the surface manager. It provides the interface with images on the screen for controlling the display. The android developer uses OpenGL or C++ for making the surface manager. It acts as a reference to the consumer for accessing the android phone.
  • Graphics Libraries:-

It deals to provide the operation of the look on the screen of an android phone. It includes the visual 2D and 3D view of the consumer. Excellent quality visualization is also a part of the android architecture that makes a user feel compatible while operating an android.

  • Web-kit:- It is for accessing web pages and establishing a connection with the server for running the HTTP content inside an Android. The website is essential in Android architecture for allowing the other libraries to access via the developer option. The main aim here is to render the remote servers for complex UI views. It performs all the functions of displaying any pages If a user clicks on any type of HTTP URL in action with the remote server.
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3. Application Framework:-

These are the group of instantaneous architectural units that group together to make this understandable for a developer. This android architecture manager helps the android developer to decide the limit of the functioning of the app.

  • Activity manager:- It works by managing the stack of activities like start, runs, pauses, deletes, etc. It is an integral part of the Libraries on Android architecture for allowing controls to the media library. It gives the idea about total storage used and left with the memory to know about the functioning. All the running and no running applications can be checked easily by the use of the activity manager. It is also known as the API interface.
  • Telephony manager:- It performs all the functions of managing telephone calls. It recognizes all the input numbers in order and helps in making the right call to the typed number. It also keeps the record of all the calls for a time until it gets formatted from the application manager.
  • Notifications Manager

As the name suggests, it allows you to display notifications in the form of a header or popup on the screen of your phone. The android architecture of a phone must be capable of maintaining the incoming information. The user can block these notification requests by using the notification manager.

  • Content provider:– This framework functions as a data providing tool. For example, the SMS app can be an example of a content providing app as it helps in writing some content that makes a meaningful sense to its user. All other note-making, drawing, or video making application comes in the category of content provider. It applies to all apps that can generate some meaning full output for the user. It’s the most necessary managing units while analyzing an android architecture.
  • Resource Manager − Resource is all the noncoded units like images, text, and colors. It helps in managing the look of the interface in an android phone. Every visual effect that processed while accessing a phone is due to the resource manager. 

4. Applications:-

These are the default applications like Call, SM, contents that are already present on the android phone. While going through developing an app, the developer only adds this application for completing the setup of Android architecture. The rest part, like managing calls and SMS, is dependent on the user.

The third-party application that we install instead of the default application is known as user developer applications. All the application uses AndroidManifest.xml file for running their program.

It has four types of components described below:-

  • Activities:- An android screen has been prepared to perform a single function on its whole screen. But, the activity section manages to keeps all the records of the original scrolls made on the same screen before let them. It can handle all the user interactions ground screen of the smartphone.
  • Services:- It manages the long-running operation on the screen. For example:- if you play and music and exit the app, the music doesn’t get stopped but keeps running even in the background while operating the different app. So all the processing units on the horizon and smart screen run without blocking the user interaction.
  • Broadcast Receivers:-

In Android architecture, It merely means receiving permission from the apps for assessment of the file. For example, if you are downloading any file, the broadcast receiver will help to get the data by asking your permission for receiving the data or not. All the input files get saved inside the file manager only with the help of a broadcast receiver.

  • Extra components:- Other components of Android architecture for applications includes Fragments, Layouts, intents, and resources.
  • Default applications:- These are the applications that are essential while studying for Android architecture. The developer must think of fixing the default applications inside the android phone to keep the validate running for other apps. It includes app like alarm, home, calendar, camera, contacts, etc.
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5. Android Runtime:-

It easy to understood by taking an example of JVM (Java virtual machine). The role of these JVM is to process the input and generate the output. Inside an android architecture, Android runtime place help in managing the user comfort ability while using an application. Android runtime is a time processing unit that takes a few seconds to show response. But, in Android, we use the Dalvik virtual machine instead of JVM. re Its components are of the following types:- 

  • Dalvik VM:- It uses .dex files for processing the input units of an application. All the dex files that it creates are better for the developer because it creates classes of each file that it process. They use dex memory to provide battery power to Android. Dex files are the most compatible way of processing and use very little battery power for giving output.
  • Core Libraries:- It includes a Java standard library to connect to the input and output processing units. All the core libraries are in minimal groups that run in the background for managing the controls of every android software.


Android architecture can explain the frame of an android app in more depth. Fulfilling all the above parameters can help you to make an Android app. It also gives us the idea of the fundamental elements before using an Android studio. You can know additional details like hardware abstraction after knowing about the architecture of an Android app.


  • What is the necessity of android architecture?

Even if Android architecture helps us in understanding the relationship between coding and software to design an Android app. It makes us clear about the beam required for making an Android application. We can know all the essential details like how does the kernel system works with the programming languages for building an app. It also makes us clear about the fundamentals challenges in app making.

  • Which platform does Android use as an operating system?

Before, Android uses a Linux kernel platform as a processing unit. The Linux uses SDK platform tools for operating the interface, ADB, Fastboot, etc. So, It also has tools for unlocking the device and adding extra features by flashing files via bootloader. Before, The android operating system has come from modifying the Linux version that is available in windows.

  • How many layers does android architecture have?

So, there are four primary layers available for knowing about the architecture of Android. Before. they are Linux kernel, Libraries, applications, and their frameworks. Additionally, one processing unit is also there that comes under the category of Android architecture as Android runtime. So, It gives details about the response for getting output following the input signals.

  • What are fundamental units for running applications on an android device?

In android architecture, the developer must know about Android. The app, Android. Database, Android’s, etc. for encompassing the libraries of Java. Before, There are other framework units like an android. Text, android. Widget for getting started. So, The developer must know about the functioning of all these units before building an android app. Before, All the programming fundamentals like C++, Java. Also, XML knowledge is also necessary for the making of android application.

  • How are tools placed in google android SDK?

Even if Google act as a toolset to provide API libraries to the developer. So, It can also debug apps for Android inside a windows OS. Before, Installation of tools inside the android SDK is compulsory for running the app. So, It used tools like an android emulator, DDMS, AAPT, etc. 

  • What is the role of DDMS in an android architecture?

So, Dalvik monitor server uses port forwarding services, network tracking units. Also, Logcat for maintaining the android runtime. It takes the help of .dex file to run the programs the same as the JVM files. So, You can’t process .class data inside DVM. Before, It runs in very less processing power and a low memory environment. So, It runs by making core library files in the smallest group for controlling the android outputs. 


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